111-3 C. Costs, Benefits, and Effectiveness (Continued) Program Effectiveness; The following summary is based on findings presented In the recently completed Impact Study (E.I). Based on locally administered achievement tests* Indian student scores have risen significantly from 1972 to 1982 and are now only slightly below the average scores of non-Indian students in Part A districts. While there is no conclusive evidence that these gains are directly attributable to pro- ject services, local project staff and parent committee members generally rate these services as having had a positive impact. Average attendance for Indian students in Part A districts indicates that they may already be at the national norm for all public school students— about 161 days per year. Nevertheless, improving attendance is a primary objective in 60 percent of the local projects studied. Substantial amounts of time are devoted to efforts to improve attendance and to reduce the high dropout rate among Indian students. Ask for attitudes toward school and self, comparisons between Indian students who participated in Part A activities during the 1981-82 school year and other Indian students who did not participate provide some direct evidence of positive impacts. The differences observed are relatively small* One interpretation is that pre-existing differences in attitude may be a factor in determining participation in project activities. Pa rental Involyement; Parent committees are organized and function in the areas emphasized by Part A legislation and regulation. Project directors report them to be the most heavily involved group (compared to project staff, Indian students, school staff, tribal leaders, and other parents) in determining Indian student needs. Forty-five percent of the project directors report the committees made recommendations (which are adopted about half the time). Parents and school personnel are generally suppor- tive of the programs. About half of the tribal leaders, however, have negative comments about the projects, the staff, or what is taught. IEA Impacts: Part A projects have had modest impacts on classroom level curricula and teaching practices, according to school administrators. Principals of 82 percent of survey schools report improvement in over- all school curriculum due to Part A projects, and principals in 58 percent of these schools indicate project materials are used by some teachers in their schools. D. Plans for Program Improvement and Recommendations for legislation During 1984, all aspects of the program were reviewed to assist the Department in determining the need for legislative change and future budget levels. 2f private schools.